Smad1 belongs to the SMAD family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signals of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to BMP ligands, this protein can be phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase. The phosphorylated form of this protein forms a complex with SMAD4, which is important for its function in the transcription regulation. This protein is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as SMURF1 and SMURF2, and undergoes ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed.
Suitable for use in Flow Cytometry, Dot Blot, Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation and Immunocytochemistry. Other applications not tested.
Flow Cytometry: 0.5-2ug/ml. HeLa cells were fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde/PBS and permeabilized in 90% methanol.
Western Blot: 0.2-2ug/ml
Immunocytochemistry: 2-100ug/ml. HeLa cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS.
Optimal dilutions to be determined by the researcher.
Storage and Stability:
May be stored at 4 degrees C for short-term only. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20 degrees C. Aliquots are stable for 12 months. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap.