A number of modifications of Grace's medium were developed in several laboratories in the late 1960's and 1970's. Many of these modifications were developed by Dr. W.F. Hink for the growth of cells derived from the cabbage looper, Tricoplusia ni. This formula represents the modification known as TNM-FH. When properly supplemented, TNM-FH Insect Medium supports a number of cell lines from a variety of lepidopteran species. It is ideally suited for growth, infection, and protein expression of insect cell lines. This medium may be used for suspension or monolayer cultures. This medium is generally supplemented with serum.