Gliotoxin is a potent epithiodioxopiperazine mycotoxin produced by species in the genera Gliocladium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. At the cellular level gliotoxin has been shown to inhibit a broad range of unrelated mechanisms, such as inhibition of chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome, Ca2+ release from mitochondria, activation of transcription factor NF-kB in response to a variety of stimuli in T and B cells, anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of farnesyltransferase and geranyl- geranyltransferase. The mode of action appears to be via covalent binding to proteins through mixed disulphide formation. Gliotoxin has been shown to inhibit a number of thiol-requiring enzymes and also displays antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity.
Gliotoxin from Gliocladium fimbriatum.
Soluble in ethanol, methanol, DMF or DMSO. Poor water solubility.
Storage and Stability:
Lyophilized powder may be stored at -20 degrees C. Stable for 12 months at -20 degrees C. Reconstitute with DMSO. Aliquot to avoid repeated freezing and thawing. Store at -20 degrees C. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap. Further dilutions can be made in assay buffer.